Dr. Edward Peters 

To work for the proper implementation of canon law is to play an extraordinarily

constructive role in continuing the redemptive mission of Christ. Pope John Paul II







1983 Code



1917 Code


 Liber Extra



 Eastern Code


1152 x 864


8 mar 2015

Some short explanations of Latin grammar points

The page under development


Ecclesiastical Latin

Basic indirect discourse

Using the relative pronoun (adjectival)

Conditional sentences





continuo, subito, vulgo





apte, digne,





alacriter, frequenter



Conditional sentences


Latin conditional sentences come in three main varieties. They generally consist of two parts, a subordinate, or conditional, "if" clause (known as the protasis) and an independent, or main, "then" clause (known as the apodosis).


In English, the order of the clauses is not important, thus: "If the pope celebrates Mass (then) the choir sings" can also be written "The choir sings if the pope celebrates Mass." It is very common for an English protasis to be marked by a cue-word such as "if" or "unless", but the apodosis might, or might not, use a cue-word such as "then", and English especially avoids it if the apodosis comes first in the sentence.


1. Simple conditions, or "if-then" sentences

There is no prediction or expectation that the event described in the protasis will occur, but only that, if does occur, the consequence described in the apodosis is expected, too. The basic structure of the simple conditional is: If {indicative mood verb}, (then) {indicative mood verb}.


If the pope celebrates Mass (then) the choir sings. -OR- The choir sings if the pope celebrates Mass.

Si papa missam celebrat schola cantat. -VEL- Schola cantat si papa Missam celebrat.


Unless we pray in Jesus' name, the Father does not hear us.

Nisi in Iesu nomine oramus, nos Pater non audit. -VEL-  Pater non audit nos nisi oramus in nomine Iesu.


2. Future less vivid


3. Future more vivid


Sequence of tenses




1. Imperative mood


2. Future jussive


3. Subjunctive