CanonLaw.info

Dr. Edward Peters 

To work for the proper implementation of canon law is to play an extraordinarily

constructive role in continuing the redemptive mission of Christ. Pope John Paul II

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Abbreviations

Masterpage

1983 Code

 

Masterpage

1917 Code

 Masterpage

 Liber Extra

 

 Masterpage

 Eastern Code

Resolution

1152 x 864

Updated

17 mar 2015

Koine Greek


Overview

 

 

Koine is that form of ancient Greek found in the Old and New Testaments and some ancient Christian writings. Its importance for Scriptural and early Christian studies can scarcely be exaggerated. The 'lingua franca' of the ancient Eastern Mediterranean world, Koine is considered by some to be more accessible than are the various forms of Classical Greek, but the structural differences between these forms of Greek and Koine should not be exaggerated.

John I: 1-5


Basic prayers

Εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς, καὶ τοῦ Υίοῦ,

καὶ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος. Ἀμήν.

 

Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς˙ ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομα σου˙

ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου˙ γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου,

ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς˙

τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον˙

καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν,

ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν˙

καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν,

ἀλλὰ ρῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.

 

Χαῖρε, Μαριάμ, κεχαριτωμένη, ὁ Κύριος μετὰ σοῦ.

Eὐλογημένη σὺ ἐν γυναιξίν

καὶ εὐλογημένος ὁ καρπὸς τῆς κοιλίας σου, Ἰησοῦς.

Ἁγία Μαριάμ, μήτηρ Θεοῦ, προσεύχου περί ἡμῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν,

ἤδη καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ὥραν τοῦ θανάτου ἡμῶν. μήν.

 

Ἡ δόξα τῷ Πατρὶ καὶ τῷ Ὑιῷ καὶ τῷ Ἁγίῳ Πνεύματι.

Καθὼς ἦν ἐν ἀρχ καὶ ἐστὶν ἤδη

καὶ ἒσται διὰ παντὸς εἰς τος αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. μήν.

 


Niceno/Constantinopol-itan Creed

Πιστεύομεν ες να Θεν Πατρα παντοκρτορα ποιητν οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς ὁρατῶν τε πντων καὶ ἀοράτων·

 

καὶ εἰς να Κριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστν τν υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸν Μονογενῆ, τὸν κ τοῦ Πατρὸς γεννηθντα πρὸ πάντων τν αἰώνων, Φῶς κ Φωτς, Θεν ἀληθινὸν κ Θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ, γεννηθέντα οὐ ποιηθέντα, ὁμοούσιον τῷ Πατρί, δι' οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο·

 

τὸν δι' ἡμᾶς τος ἀνθρώπους καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηραν κατελθντα κ τν οὐρανῶν, καὶ σαρκωθέντα κ Πνεματος Ἁγίου καὶ Μαρίας τς παρθνου, καὶ ἐνανθρωπήσαντα, σταυρωθέντα τε ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλτου, καὶ παθόντα, καὶ ταφέντα, καὶ ἀναστάντα τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ κατὰ τὰς γραφς, καὶ ἀνελθόντα ες τος οὐρανοὺς, καὶ καθεζόμενον ν δεξιᾷ τοῦ Πατρὸς, καὶ πάλιν ἐρχόμενον μετὰ δόξης κρναι ζντας καὶ νεκρούς, οὗ τῆς βασιλεας οκ σται τλος·

 

καὶ εἰς τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον, τὸ Κύριον καὶ Ζωοποιόν, τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον, τὸ σὺν Πατρὶ καὶ Υἱῷ συμπροσκυνούμενον καὶ συνδοξαζόμενον, τὸ λαλῆσαν διὰ τῶν προφητν·

 

εἰς μαν ἁγίαν καθολικν καὶ ἀποστολικὴν ἐκκλησίαν· ὁμολογοῦμεν ν βπτισμα ες φεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν· προσδοκῶμεν ἀνάστασιν νεκρν, καὶ ζωὴν τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος. ἀμήν.

 


Definite article

 

 

 

Masculine

 

Feminine

 

Neuter

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Nom.

 

οἱ

 

αἱ

 

τό

τά

 

Gen.

 

τοῦ

τῶν

 

τῆς

τῶν

 

τοῦ

τῶν

 

Dat.

 

τῷ

τοῖς

 

τῇ

ταῖς

 

τῷ

τοῖς

 

Acc.

 

τόν

τούς

 

τήν

τάς

 

τό

τά

 

 

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

 


Nouns

 

Watch for accent mark variations in actual words.

First declension nouns

 

 

 

Singular

 

Singular

 

 Plural

 

 

Alpha (fem)

Eta (fem)

 

Mixed (fem)

Masculine

 

All

 

 

Nom.

 

-α

-η

 

-α

-ης

 

-αι

 

 

Gen.

 

-ας

-ης

 

-ης

-ου

 

-ων

 

 

Dat.

 

-

-

 

-

-

 

-αις

 

 

Acc.

 

-αν

-ην

 

-αν

-ην

 

-ας

 

 

 Voc.

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwww

w

 

wwwwwww

wwwwwwww

 

 

Second declension nouns

 

 

 

Masculine/Feminine

 

Neuter

 

 

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

 

 

 

Nom.

 

-ος

-οι

 

-ον

-α

     

 

Gen.

 

-ου

-ων

 

-ου

-ων

     

 

Dat.

 

-

-οις

 

-

-οις

     

 

Acc.

 

-ον

-ους

 

-ον

-α

     

 

 Voc.

 

-ε

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwww

 

wwwwwwww

wwwwwwww

 

 

Third declension nouns

 

 

 

Basic (masc. & fem.)

 

Neuter in -μα

 

 

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

   

 

Nom.

 

 - , -ς

-ες

 

-μα

-ματα

     

 

Gen.

 

-ος

-ων

 

-ματος

-ματῶν

     

 

Dat.

 

-ι

-σι

 

-ματι

-μασι(ν)

     

 

Acc.

 

-α

-ας

 

-μα

-ματα

     

 

 Voc.

 

wwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

 

 

 

Feminine in -ις

 

Masculine in -ευς

 

Neuter in -ος

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Nom.

 

-ις

-εις

 

-εύς

-εῖς

 

-ος

-η

 

Gen.

 

-εως

-εων

 

-έως

-έων

 

-ους

-ῶν

 

Dat.

 

-ει

-εσι(ν)

 

-εῖ

-εῦσι(ν)

 

-ει

-εσι(ν)

 

Acc.

 

-ιν

-εις

 

-έα

-εῖς

 

-ος

-η

 

 Voc.

 

w ww

wwwwwww

 

w

www

 

wwwwww

wwwwww

 

 


Personal

pronouns

First & Second persons

 

 

 

First person

 

Alternates (enclitics)

 

Second person

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

1st person

2nd person

 

Singular

Plural

 

Nom.

 

ἐγώ

ἡμεῖς

 

Singular

Singular

 

σύ

ὑμεῖς

 

Gen.

 

ἐμοῦ

ἡμῶν

 

μου

σου

 

σοῦ

ὑμῶν

 

Dat.

 

ἐμοί

ἡμῖν

 

μοι

σοι

 

σοί

ὑμῖν

 

Acc.

 

ἐμέ

ἡμᾶς

 

με

σε

 

σέ

ὑμᾶς

 

 

 

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wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

 

Third person

 

 

 

Masculine

 

Feminine

 

Neuter

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Nom.

 

αὐτός

αὐτοί

 

αὐτ

αὐταἱ

 

αὐτό

αὐτ

 

Gen.

 

αὐτοῦ

αὐτών

 

αὐτῆς

αὐτών

 

αὐτοῦ

αὐτών

 

Dat.

 

αὐτῷ

αὐτοῖς

 

αὐτ

αὐταῖς

 

αὐτῷ

αὐτοῖς

 

Acc.

 

αὐτόν

αὐτος

 

αὐτήν

αὐτάς

 

αὐτό

αὐτ

 

 

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

 


Relative pronouns

 

 

 

Masculine

 

Feminine

 

Neuter

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Nom.

 

ὅς

οἵ

 

αἵ

 

 

Gen.

 

οὗ

ὧν

 

ἧς

ὧν

 

οὗ

ὧν

 

Dat.

 

οἷς

 

αἷς

 

οἷς

 

Acc.

 

ὅν

οὕς

 

ἥν

ἅς

 

 

 

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

 


Adjectives

 

Watch for accent mark variations in actual words.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First & Second declension adjectives

 

 

 

Masculine

 

Feminine

 

Neuter

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Nom.

 

-ός

-οἱ

 

-ἡ

-αἱ

 

ν

-ά

 

Gen.

 

-οῦ

-ῶν

 

-ῆς

-ᾶς

-ῶν

 

-οῦ

-ῶν

 

Dat.

 

-ῷ

-οῖς

 

-ῇ

-ᾷ

-αῖς

 

-ῷ

-οῖς

 

Acc.

 

-όν

-ούς

 

-ἡν

ν

-άς

 

ν

-ά

 

 Voc.

 

-εwwwwwww

wwwwwxwwww

 

Feminine singular variations used after: α, ε, or ρ

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

 

Third declension adjectives

 

 

 

Masculine/Feminine

 

 

 

Neuter

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

   

 

Singular

Plural

 

Nom.

 

-ής

-εῖς

       

-ές

-ῆ

 

Gen.

 

-οῦς

-ῶν

       

-οῦς

-ῶν

 

Dat.

 

-εῖ

-έσι(ν)

       

-εῖ

-έσι(ν)

 

Acc.

 

-ῆ

-εῖς

       

-ές

-ῆ

 

 Voc.

 

-έςwwwwww

 -

 

wwwwwwwpp

wwwwwwkkww

 

wwww

wwwwwwww

 

 

 

Demonstrative "this"

 

 

 

Masculine

 

Feminine

 

Neuter

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Nom.

 

οὗτος

οὗτοι

 

αὕτη

αὗται

 

τοτο

ταῦτα

 

Gen.

 

τοτου

τοτων

 

τατης

τοτων

 

τοτου

τοτων

 

Dat.

 

τοτῳ

τοτοις

 

τατῃ

ταταις

 

τοτῳ

τοτοις

 

Acc.

 

τοῦτον

τοτους

 

τατην

τατας

 

τοτο

ταῦτα

 

 

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

 

Demonstrative "that"

 

 

 

Masculine

 

Feminine

 

Neuter

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Nom.

 

ἐκεῖνος

ἐκεῖνοι

 

ἐκείνη

ἐκεῖναι

 

ἐκεῖνο

ἐκεῖνα

 

Gen.

 

ἐκείνου

ἐκείνων

 

ἐκείνης

ἐκείνων

 

ἐκείνου

ἐκείνων

 

Dat.

 

ἐκείνῳ

ἐκείνοις

 

ἐκείνῃ

ἐκείναις

 

ἐκείνῳ

ἐκείνοις

 

Acc.

 

ἐκεῖνον

ἐκείνους

 

ἐκείνην

ἐκείνας

 

ἐκεῖνο

ἐκεῖνα

 

 

 

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wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

 

Adjective Sequences

Attributive

 

• adjective noun

• the adjective noun

• noun the adjective

• the noun the adjective

 

Predicative

 

• the noun adjective

• adjective the noun

 

Substantive

 

• (the) adjective

 


Prepositions

The Nominative never takes a preposition in Greek.

Prepositions are often pre-fixed to verbs, sometimes with spelling/accent changes.

 

One case

 

 

 

Genitive only  Dative only Accusative only

 

ἀντί • in place of, instead of

 ἐν • in, among

ἀνά • up

ἀπό • from

 σύν • with

εἰς • into, against, to

ἄχρι(ς) • up to, as far as

 

πρός • toward, to, with

ἐκ, ἐξ • out of, by, after

 

ὡς • to (a person)

ἕνεκα • for the sake of (follows object)

 

 

ἔμπροσθεν • before, in front of

 

 

ἐνώπιον • before, in sight/presence of

 

 

πλήν • except

 

 

πρό • before, in front of

 

 

 

Two cases

 

διά

Gen.

through

 

Acc.

for the sake of, because of

 

κατά

Gen.

against

 

Acc.

according to

 

μετά

Gen.

with

 

Acc.

after, behind

 

περί

Gen.

about, concerning

 

Acc.

around

 

ὑπέρ

Gen.

in behalf of

 

Acc.

above

 

ὑπό

Gen.

by

 

Acc.

under

 

Three cases

 

ἐπί

Gen.

on, upon, over

 

 

 

Dat.

on, at, in addition to

Acc.

on, over, toward, for

 

παρά

Gen.

from

 

 

 

Dat.

beside, with, among

Acc.

by, along

 


Verbs

See "The Greek Verb System", a 22" x 14" color-coded chart, suitable-for-framing-or-laminating, available from Dallas Theological Seminary Book Room, 3909 Swiss Avenue, Dallas, TX 75204.

 

Verb "to be",

indicative

 

 

 

Imperfect

 

Present

 

Future

 

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

 

I

 

ἤμην

ἦμεν*

 

εἰμί

ἐσμέν

 

ἔσομαι

ἐσόμεθα

 

II

 

ἦς*

ἦτε

 

εἶ

ἐστέ

 

ἔσῃ

ἔσεσθε

 

III

 

ἦν

ἦσαν

 

ἐστί/ν

εἰσί/ν

 

ἔσται

ἔσονται

 

 

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

wwwwwwwww

wwwwwwwww

 

Alt.

 

* ἦσθα

* ἦμεθα

             

 

Special verbs

 

                       
                       


Koine Greek letters

with diacriticals

 

α

ά

 

 

 

β

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

γ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

δ

 

 

ε

έ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ζ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

θ

 

 

η

ή

 

 

 

 

 

κ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

λ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

μ

 

 

ι

ί

 

 

 

ν

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ξ

 

 

ο

ό

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

π

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ρ

υ

ύ

 

 

 

σ

ς

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

τ

 

 

ω

ώ

 

 

 

 

 

φ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

χ

 

ψ

                                       

β

γ

δ

ζ

θ

κ

 

λ

μ

ν

ξ

 

π

ρ

σ

ς

 

τ

φ

χ

 


Grammars & Dictionaries

 

A wag once cracked that whenever ten Greek teachers gather in a room the first thing they do is to sit down and write eleven Greek grammars.

 

Qui autem putat minorem fructum gloriae ex Graecis versibus capi quam ex Latinis, errat, quod Graecae litterae leguntur in omnibus fere gentibus sed Latinae litterae suis finibus continentur. Cicero

There is a plethora of materials available for students of Greek. In the end, personal preferences should prevail. Among the materials available, though, the following basic resources are worth considering.

 

N. Clayton Croy, A Primer of Biblical Greek. Assumes no knowledge of Latin, offers more direct address of grammar, plenty of sample sentences.

 

Jim Found, Basic Greek In 30 Minutes a Day. Perhaps the most rudimentary of the grammars suggested, this book is ideal for a solo learner. 

 

Donald Mastronarde, Introduction to Attic Greek. An excellent beginning text for those wishing to gain a better understanding of the great classical authors.

 

R. W. Moore, Comparative Greek and Latin Syntax. For more advanced students, but contains many very illuminative observations on similarities and differences in the classical versions of these two languages.

 

William Mounce, Basics of Biblical Greek. Assumes no knowledge of Latin, and little of English grammar. Spends a bit too much time giving biblical incentives to (Protestant) students to study Scriptural Greek, and at times winds through some obscure etymologies, but for all that, a well-designed and executed text. Designed for use with a workbook and later a more advanced reader.

 

L. A. Wilding, Greek for Beginners. Assumes some knowledge of Latin, and spends way too much time on noun trivia, but for all that, a decent, brief, into to Classical Greek.

 

Langenscheidt's Pocket Greek Dictionary: Classical Greek-English. Besides an impressive listing of Attic words, this dictionary does contain all the vocabulary needed to read the New Testament in Greek.

 


Canticle of Simeon

(Luke II: 29-32)

 

Νῦν ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου, δέσποτα,

Nunc dimittis servum tuum, Domine,

 

κατὰ τὸ ῥῆμά σου ἐν εἰρήνῃ·

secundum verbum tuum in pace.

 

ὅτι εἶδον οἱ ὀφθαλμοί μου τὸ σωτήριόν σου,

quia viderunt oculi mei salutare tuum,

 

ὃ ἡτοίμασας κατὰ πρόσωπον πάντων τῶν λαῶν,

quod parasti ante faciem omnium populorum,

 

φῶς εἰς αποκάλυψιν ἐθνῶν καὶ δόξαν λαοῦ σου Ἰσραήλ.

lumen ad revelationem gentium et gloriam plebis tuæ Israel.